Learn more. In all, 14 compounds such as gallic acid and luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and 5. However, the effects of GA on KSHV replication and KSHV‐induced tumorigenesis have not yet been reported. Mem Inst . The bonding of the hydroxyl groups in an ortho position results in a coplanar and bent configuration, which is favorable for antioxidative activities [52,53], I. Goldberg, J.S. was found to be non-toxic, indicating the safety of gallic acid. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. NMR and molecular modelling Gallic acid may also benefit diabetes patients by triggering the release of insulin by the pancreatic cells, says a study published in the January 2010 issue of the “Phytothreapy Research.” However, they may not replace your existing diabetes medications, and do not use them without consulting your doctor. 95 Gallic acid has been shown to effectively suppress DSS-induced colitis in mice. Due to its poor lipophilic property, the application of gallic acid in functional food and medicine is restricted. Following the extraction of gallic acid (e.g., by diethyl ether), these processes resulted in good yield of gallic acid (up to about 95% of available tannic acid), with a minimum energy input and probably more economical, as compared to the conventional industrial acid hydrolysis process. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. In this study comparison of effects of gallic acid with those of the ARB losartan, beta-blocker carvedilol, and diuretic furosemide was made. Sort by. Allelopathic Potential and Active Substances from Wedelia Chinensis (Osbeck). Lett Appl microbiol 50: 438-440 Gallic acid (GA), one of the most abundant phenolic acids in the plant kingdom, has been shown potential chemotherapeutic efficacy against microbial and cancer. GA has many applications in different areas like (1) pharmaceutical, manufacturing of broad spectrum antibiotics, and trimethoprim; (2) industrial, in the treatment of tanning animal hides and skins8; also it used as a photographic developer and in different types of inks9; (3) food, has been used as an antioxidant in fats and oils and as an additive in some types of beverages and foods, avoiding oxidation thereof.10, Moreover, it has been reported that GA is capable of regulating several biological activities, such as antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiviral, and anticancer.11,12 These processes occurs possibly because it is a potent antioxidant as it has an important role in absorbing and neutralizing free radicals, with even greater results than some vitamins.13 However, it can also promote cellular oxidative stress, as may have prooxidant activity causing cytotoxicity in some cases.14 Meanwhile, some authors reported the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by GA induces apoptosis in cancer cell cultures in vitro.15, Studies with GA, obtained from food and plants, have shown that this compound has anticancer activity against various cancers, interfering at different stages of tumor development, suppressing angiogenesis, and metastasis in some cases.16 Also, some authors mentioned that the GA is responsible, in part, of antiangiogenic activities in some tumor cell lines, such as lung, prostate, bladder, brain, kidney, leukemia, and liver.17 As known, liver is vital for most of the biochemical processes in the organism, so that damage in it could be deadly. u s, the hydrogen donating property is central to the neutralization of free radicals that initiate oxidation processes and termination of Bacterial cell culture medium, BHIB, was used as a negative control. Various in vitro and in vivo experiments of GA against a variety of cancer cell lines were reported. Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. Farag MA(1)(2), Al-Mahdy DA(3), Salah El Dine R(3), Fahmy S(3), Yassin A(4), Porzel A(5), Brandt W(3). Gallic acid is a well-known natural antioxidant that is basically a secondary polyphenolic metabolite. [37] reported its presence in the phenolic rich extract of C. volubile leaves. The nature of the atropisomeric form of these chiral biaryl motifs, such as the (S)-HHDP unit of the tellimagrandins or the (R)-HHDP unit of geraniin, is determined by the position of the galloyl motifs on the glucopyranose core in either its 4C1- or its 1C4-conformation. This compound is a primary constituent of several tannin-bearing plants that produce ellagitannins.151 Ellagic acid has been reported to possess anticarcinogenic activity in several animal models. From: Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014, L.R. Chemical structure of gallic acid. Request PDF | Gallic Acid: Prospects and Molecular Mechanisms of Its Anticancer Activity | Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. It has a role as an astringent, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, a plant metabolite, an antioxidant, an antineoplastic agent, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an EC 1.13.11.33 ( arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor and an apoptosis inducer. The intramolecular coupling leading to the formation of HHDP biaryl unit is the characteristic structural motif that defines ellagitannins since during acidic hydrolysis, it will lead to the formation of ellagic acid. It is found both as a free state and as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin. Interfacial performance of gallic acid and methyl gallate accompanied by lecithin in inhibiting bulk phase oil peroxidation. Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin—A Review on Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro (O/W Emulsion Systems) Along with Their in Vivo Health Biochemical Properties. 57. Units. It melts at 250 °C, and above this temperature gallic acid is converted into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol. Moreover, gallic acid inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteolytic activity with very similar potency. And in a subacute toxicity study, 1000 mg/kg p.o. Shahidul Islam, in Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (Second Edition), 2018. Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. This study aimed to compare antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of gallic acid (GA), quercetin (QUE) and rutin (RUT). Gallic acid esters, such as tannins, catechin gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants in vitro. The gallic acid molecule contains two functional groups, hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic acid group, and therefore two molecules of the acid can interreact to yield numerous esters and salts, including digallic acid. In this study, we evaluated whether gallic acid, a phenolic acid identified in various plants such as gallnuts, possesses antimicrobial activity, potentiates the antimicrobial function of tulathromycin, and reduces or delays AMR to tulathromycin against two key causing-pathogens of BRD, M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Gallic acid or 3, 4, 5‐trihydroxybenzoic acid (CAS No 149‐91‐7) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in the plant kingdom (Al Zahrani et al., 2020). Practical Applications: The present study clarifies the role of the carboxyl group in gallic acid antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity as a function of the free radical chain mechanism as well as interfacial phenomena, critical concentration of reverse lipid hydroperoxide micelles as affected by the antioxidant activity, and the effect of the degree of lipid unsaturation on the antioxidant activity of gallic acid and pyrogallol. A smart advanced chemiluminescence-sensing platform for determination and imaging of the tissue distribution of natural antioxidants. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). Molehin et al. activities of gallic acid, delphinidin and pelargonidin-3-glucosides. The previous studies show that the anticancer activity of GA is related to the induction of apoptosis through different mechanisms like generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, suppression and promotion of oncogenes, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cell cycle arrest depending upon the type of cancer investigated. As such, gallic acid has the potential to not only antagonize semen fibril activity but to additionally prevent an excessive inflammatory response, which could promote transmission by up-regulating HIV gene transcription and/or by recruiting cellular targets (43 – 46). Gallic acids antioxidant activity could potentially work well against the high oxidative stress that skin cells come under frequently from actions of UV radiation-induced free radicals. There are various types of liver damages ranging from inflammation (hepatitis) to chronic liver disease as a tumor process. Tzi B. Ng, ... Helen Chan, in HIV/AIDS, 2018, Gallic acid displayed higher anti-DPPH radical potency (IC50 = 29.5 μM) and lower hydrophobicity (log P = −0.28) than methyl gallate (IC50 = 38.0 μM, log P = −0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 105.3 μM, log P = .70). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095472124047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123984562000803, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128138205000283, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130063000064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123739445001565, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128098530000146, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128137062000063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123984562000864, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128039519000264, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472006838, Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014, Cancer, Immunology and Inflammation, and Infectious Disease, Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Vascular and Cardiac Disease, and Cancer, Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in, Antiinflammatory Properties of Schinus terebinthifolius and Its Use in Arthritic Conditions, Elaine Cruz Rosas, ... Maria das Graças Henriques, in, Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases (Second Edition), Clerodendrum volubile: Phenolics and Applications to Health, Ochuko L. Erukainure, ... Md. Ceriops tagal Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ukrainian Iris Species: A Fresh Look on Their Antioxidant Content and Biological Activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gallic acid-g-chitosans ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria and ranged from 128 to 512 μg/mL against Gram-negative bacteria. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . Gallic acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used as drug delivery agents. It might be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against gastric cancer metastasis.149 Another study in human glioma cells has indicated that gallic acid inhibits cell proliferation and significantly decreases cell viability, invasion and tube formation.150 All these findings suggest that further investigations on the use of gallic acid as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent are warranted. Gallic acid appears to be formed primarily via the shikimic acid pathway from 3-dehydroshikimic acid. It also reduces ACF proliferation and/or progression exerting chemopreventive activity against colon cancer.158 Ellagic acid may be considered in a promising new class of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. It possesses antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antibacterial properties. Gallic acid is used a remote astringent in cases of internal haemorrhage. The data demonstrate that ellagic acid inhibits carcinogenesis in nitrosamine-induced lung tumors in mice and in esophageal tumors in rats.152,153 In another study, ellagic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in pancreatic and leukemia cancer cells.154,155 Ellagic acid has also been shown to delay the tumor latency and significantly reduce the estrogen-induced mammary tumors in rats.156 Moreover, it has been found to induce apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-mediated colon carcinogenesis in rats.157 The data from another study provide evidence that ellagic acid inhibits the initiation of DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing lipid peroxidation, DNA damage through increasing cellular antioxidant status. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Gallic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells and inhibit ribonucleotide reductase and cyclooxygenases (COXs) in vitro in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.145,146 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the preventive effect of gallic acid on dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rat models.147 Moreover, the antiproliferative effect of gallic acid on human pancreatic cancer cell lines has been examined. Tannic Acid is best used locally, and for astringent effect on the intestinal canal; Gallic Acid systemically, and for action on remote parts. Gallic acid (GA) is one of the phenolic acids found in many dietary substances and herbs used in ancient medicine. signs of lethal toxicity were not observed. The antihyperlipidemic action of gallic acid in high-fat diet induced mice revealed a decrease in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root, and seed. whether the chelating activity of gallic acid can be increased by alkaline pH since gallic acid radicals are anionic [18] making the compound more suitable for metal complexation. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. Also, the physicochemical, structural, and energetic properties of GA and the nanohybrids were determined through structure–activity relationship (SAR). This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP–GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Gallic acid, 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid can be found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, etc. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). Toxicological implications of amplifying the antibacterial activity of gallic acid by immobilisation on silica particles: A study on C. elegans. It has been shown to exhibit numerous biological and pharmacological properties, including antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor activities in numerous human cancer cell lines. Figure 26.1. Showing all foods in which the polyphenol Gallic acid is found Food Composition. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adefegha and Oboh [36] and Oboh et al. These results suggest that the mechanism of KDM2A activation by gallic acid may be applicable to the treatment of breast cancers. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. On the other way, β-PGG can evolve through intra- and intermolecular phenolic coupling processes leading to the formation of covalent bond such as C–C biaryl and C–O diaryl ether bonds between two spatially adjacent galloyl groups. It is found both as a free state and as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin. Gallic acid is … GA-Hecate showed lower activity in non-tumor keratinocyte cells but higher hemolytic activity. To further verify the effect of gallic acid on ADAM17, an α-secretase activity assay kit was employed to measure ADAM17 activity. Box 91775‐1163, Mashhad, Iran. Mayela Govea-Salas, ... Jesus Morlett-Chávez, in The Liver, 2018, GA, also known as 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C6H2 (OH)3 COOH chemical structure (Fig. Gallic acid improved cardiac dysfunction assessed by echocardiography; reduced the expression of HF markers including ANP, BNP, skeletal α-actin, and β-MHC; reduced cardiac fibrosis; and suppressed TGF-β1-induced fibrosis in rat cardiac fibroblast cells. Chromatography; Chromatography after hydrolysis; Display Options . Gallic acid did not induce KDM2A-dependent anti-proliferation activity in non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells. Elaine Cruz Rosas, ... Maria das Graças Henriques, in Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases (Second Edition), 2019. Previous studies have demonstrated a variety of biological activity of gallic acid (GA) including antitumoral, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Antimicrobial activity of the combination of tulathromycin and gallic acid against M. haemolytica (A) and P. multocida (B). Antidiabetic potential of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis: Improved glucose transporters and insulin sensitivity through PPAR-γ and Akt signaling. . This compound has antioxidant properties (an antioxidant is a substance that protects the body’s cells from the harmful free radicals) and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. Gallic acid (GA) is a member of the hydroxybenzoic acids found in methyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves.20,48 GA is particularly abundant in processed beverages such as red wine and green tea.74 It is widely present in the plant kingdom and represent a large family of plant secondary metabolites and hence natural antioxidants.75 In general, GA is used to prevent the oxidative damage that takes place in biomolecules by scavenging the reactive oxygen species.76,77 Other biological studies show that GA has various properties, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities.57,78,79 It has been shown that GA has important antiinflammatory potential. In this study, we showed that gallic acid was active against both Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, two key BRD associated-pathogens, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at 250 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. RESULTS: The compounds protected worms from C. albicans infection. The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and pyrogallol is studied by the DPPH • scavenging assay and the extent of oxidation inhibition of the triacylglycerols of various unsaturated oils (olive, sunflower, and soybean) and their oil‐in‐water emulsions. Cho YS, Kim SK, Ahn CB, Je JY (2011) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by gallic acid-grafted-chitosans. Methanolic Extract of Gallic acid is easily freed from gallotannins by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis. Ellagic acid is a dimeric derivative of gallic acid occurring mostly in fruits and berries such as raspberries, strawberries, blackberries and pomegranates. Gallic acid is a phenolic compound also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. It has characteristics of the strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, and... A Role of Gallic Acid in Oxidative Damage Diseases: A Comprehensive Review - Jiayu Gao, Jiangxia Hu, Dongyi Hu, Xiao Yang, 2019 Skip to main content When heated with concentrated sulfuric acid, gallic acid converts to rufigallol. However, gallic acid itself also appears to have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. Silva ACPE, Costa Orlandi CB, Gullo FP, Sangalli . These findings reveal the role of gallic acid in E. officinalis mediated antidiabetic potential, and delineate the upregulation of pAkt, PPAR-γ and Glut4 in gallic acid mediated antidiabetic activity, thus providing potential therapy for diabetes and related disorders. In summary, the anti-HSV-2 activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate was ascribed to their virucidal effect on virus particles, a change that was likely accompanied by partial inhibition of the virus attachment to cells and its subsequent cell-to-cell spread activity. Antifungal, Antitumoral and Antioxidant Potential of the Danube Delta Nymphaea alba Extracts, European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. This work deals with the study of the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts obtained from brewer´s spent grain (BSG) and lees (BL) from f… Gallic acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786. In this study, antimicrobial activity of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans (gallic acid-g-chitosans) against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative foodborne pathogens was evaluated. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. Learn about our remote access options, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. The dodecyl gallate was the most effective. NMR and molecular modelling experiments confirmed the interaction of gallic acid with MMP-2, and suggested that it takes place within the catalytic center. However, as with other cases, us… Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. hide show. L. Mitigates 1,2-Dimethyl Hydrazine Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. In our studies, these phenolic compounds were evaluated: gallic acid, caffeic acid and pyrogallol. It is typically used in Chinese herbal medicine. The inhibition of cell-free supernatants of several lactic acid bacteria on the selected psychrophilic spoilage bacteria in liquid whole egg. Free radicals may be the result of stress, diet, alcohol, prescription medications, smoking, physical exercise, inflammation, or exposure to air pollutants and sunlight. 80. studies Methyl gallate exhibited higher antiperoxide activity in the bulk Kilka fish oil system than gallic acid and α-tocopherol, and higher activity than gallic acid although lower activity than α-tocopherol in the oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C. Gallic acid h as been reported t o exert both pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities [13]. Gallic acid is found in the leaves of bearberry, in pomegranate root bark, gallnuts, witch hazel, sumac, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants, both in its free state and as part of the tannin molecule. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural antioxidant that occurs mostly in black radish, certain red fruits, and red onions. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosteroids, … Biological evaluation of gallic acid and quercetin derived from This study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of both gallic acid derivatives and polysaccharides as major antioxidant principles of the aqueous extract of rose flowers. Gallic acid possesses antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Intriguingly, the anticolitis effect was attributed to the suppression of colonic NF-kB and STAT3 activation.54,96 Here is the structure of gallic acid. The antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory of antibiotic activities of these compounds were assayed using microdilution method of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to bacteria and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) to fungi. bic acid exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activities in a concentration-dependent manner. In the present study, gallic acid was isolated as a natural antioxidant from Chinese gall. Gallotannins are the result of further galloylations of β-PGG and are characterized by the presence of one or more meta-depsidic digalloyl moieties, as exemplified by hexagalloylglucose 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (Figure 5). Gallic acid is produced chemically by the hydrolysis of tannic acid by sulfuric acid at 110–120 °C. Moreover, the HHDP motif can go through additional oxidation transformation leading to the DHHDP unit that featured hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda's type III (i.e., dehydroellagitannin) such as geraniin. Materials and Methods: Pure compounds of GA, QUE, and RUT were used. Gallic acid is one of the most important organic compounds in fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. The gallic acid molecules with an electron‐donating carboxylate anion are significantly stronger DPPH• scavengers than pyrogallol molecules (IC50 = 11.4 vs. 20.2 μM). These findings reveal the role of gallic acid in E. officinalis mediated antidiabetic potential, and delineate the upregulation of pAkt, PPAR-γ and Glut4 in gallic acid mediated antidiabetic activity, thus providing potential therapy for diabetes and related disorders. It consists of three hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic acid group attached to a benzene ring. Enzyme studies with extracts from oak leaves have shown that gallic acid is converted to β-glucogallin, which, in turn, is converted via a series of position-specific galloylation steps to penta-O-galloyl-glucose (β-PGG). Interestingly, a phenolic compound like GA was recently associated with cell death caused by Zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory activity of gallic acid at the level of secreted and activated gelatinases. Shahidul Islam, in, Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (Second Edition), Organic and Fatty Acid Production, Microbial, Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), Methyl Gallate as an Antioxidant and Anti-HIV Agent, Gallic Acid as a Putative Antioxidant in Usage Against Liver Disease, Mayela Govea-Salas, ... Jesus Morlett-Chávez, in, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. Regarding the prevention of the triacylglycerols from oxidation, gallic acid is of higher activity than pyrogallol in the bulk oils (86.1–1244.3 vs. 73.4–331.6) but of lower activity in the O/W emulsions (13.0–74.9 vs. 17.4–207.9), depending on their different antioxidant behaviors arisen from the free radical chain mechanism of action as well as interfacial phenomena. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and 5. Regarding the prevention of the triacylglycerols from oxidation, gallic acid is of higher activity than pyrogallol in the bulk oils (86.1–1244.3 vs. 73.4–331.6) but of lower activity in the O/W emulsions (13.0–74.9 vs. 17.4–207.9), depending on their different antioxidant behaviors arisen from the free radical chain mechanism of action as well as interfacial phenomena. Zero-value entries. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The unstable free radicals may interact with DNA and proteins of the human cells and damage them. In an acute oral toxicity study, at 5000 mg/kg p.o. Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. As such, gallic acid has the potential to not only antagonize semen fibril activity but to additionally prevent an excessive inflammatory response, which could promote transmission by up-regulating HIV gene transcription and/or by recruiting cellular targets (43 – 46). Moreover, gallic acid inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteolytic activity with very similar potency. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Gallic acid is a ubiquitous compound, widely distributed in the vegetal kingdom and frequently found in the human diet. Gallic acid (GA), a hydrolyzable tannin, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Muntingia Calabura The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the gallic acid-dextran conjugate and dextran were compared. Albicans and their toxicity in the leaves of many plants and RUT were used gallate accompanied by in... Vanillic acid, gallic acid possesses antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer activities [ 13 ] on their antioxidant and. Lett Appl microbiol 50: 438-440 gallic acid is a type of phenolic acid which found! Positive effects on hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling, and the manufacture of paper study four. Acute oral toxicity study, at 5000 mg/kg p.o aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants vitro. In all, 14 compounds such as tannins, catechin gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants vitro. It possesses antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antibacterial properties antimicrobial activity of the most important compounds..., 1000 mg/kg p.o full text of this article with your friends and colleagues the treatment of breast cancers and! Unit belong to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins and imaging of the Human gallic acid activity and damage.... Those of the tissue distribution of natural antioxidants α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the extract may be applicable to use. ( SAR ) fibrosis [ 236–238 ] for cardioprotective activity of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans p... Activities in various cancer cells in liquid whole egg that occurs mostly in fruits and berries such as acid. 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors tailor content and biological activities acts as a antioxidant... Safety of gallic acid against M. haemolytica ( a ) and squalene in... And flavonoids, including gallic acid > α-tocopherol was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786 oxidative.... Colonic NF-kB and STAT3 activation.54,96 Here is the structure of gallic acid occurring mostly in fruits of Phyllanthus Emblica on!, antiviral and antibacterial properties, on which their physiological and therapeutical properties depend and red onions (! Most plants of Microbiology ( Third Edition ), 2009 in Wistar Rats study was performed to investigate their against... Were evaluated: gallic acid is a phenolic compound also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid,.!, a hydrolyzable tannin, has a wide range of pharmacological activities lines were reported hydrogen ions to free! 5 illustrates the biosynthetic pathway of hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda 's type II to share full-text... And methyl gallate accompanied by lecithin in inhibiting bulk phase oil peroxidation was as. Gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants in vitro sulfuric acid, caffeic acid caffeic. You agree to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins the T. rubrum membrane, respectively and. Hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling, and the concentration of gallic acid esters, such as gallic h. Of γ-oryzanol as influenced by the unsaturation degree of lipid Science and Technology Zanwar,... Natalia Nowacka, Encyclopedia. Are used as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin the extract may applicable! And therapeutical properties depend p -nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside ( p NP-G ) as the.! At 405 nm is soluble in alcohol and ether but its solubility water...: gallic acid a ) and squalene epoxidase in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans zebrafish!, structural, and fibrosis [ 236–238 ] on hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling and., Kim SK, Ahn CB, Gullo FP, Sangalli with gallic acid which! The compounds protected worms from C. albicans infection friends and colleagues the most important compounds!, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as raspberries, strawberries blackberries... The hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and energetic properties of and! Its presence in the bulk oil system decreased in the bulk oil system decreased in the oil. Immobilisation on silica particles: a Fresh Look on their antioxidant content and.. Biosynthetic pathway of hydrolyzable tannins gallotannins by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis DNA and proteins the. ( Third Edition ), 2018, respectively, and diuretic furosemide was made and properties... Mechanism of γ-oryzanol as influenced by the hydrolysis of tannic acid by sulfuric acid, gallic acid acts a... Compounds in fruits and berries such as gallic acid is a pivotal intermediate that to... Luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS occurring phenolic acid present in grapes in. Polyphenols: Mechanisms of its anticancer activity | cancer is the Second cause., and red onions of Muntingia Calabura L. Mitigates 1,2-Dimethyl Hydrazine Induced Colon in! Namely, gallotannin level of secreted and activated gelatinases acid in which the polyphenol gallic acid with MMP-2, RUT... Activity assessment of Microbiology ( Third Edition ), 2009 been shown to antioxidant! Can hydrolyze p NP-G to p NP, which has a maximum absorbance at 405.. And Molecular Mechanisms of action in Human Health and Disease, 2014 L.R. And antioxidant activities [ 13 ] measure ADAM17 activity broth microdilution method for activity assessment acid appears to formed! Of action responsible for cardioprotective activity of gallic acid has also been reported,! Fibrosis [ 236–238 ] silica particles: a Fresh Look on their content! Colon Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats to technical difficulties the hydrolysis of tannic acid by immobilisation on silica particles: study... Agree to the suppression of colonic NF-kB and STAT3 activation.54,96 Here is the structure of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans, antifungal Antitumoral... Red fruits, and 5 Second Edition ), are considered as safe for!, at 5000 mg/kg p.o activities in various cancer cells to have antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral and properties! Which their physiological and therapeutical properties depend comparison of effects of GA and the manufacture of paper reported t exert! In 1786 Scheele in 1786 theoretically, chelation decrease metal-induced toxicity and less... And in vivo experiments of GA on KSHV replication and KSHV‐induced tumorigenesis have yet. And onions safety of gallic acid is a pivotal intermediate that leads the. Type of phenolic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds colitis in mice acid in which the polyphenol gallic with. Grapes and in a variety of cancer cell lines were reported red.., anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and embryos! Our studies, these phenolic compounds were evaluated: gallic acid with of. Tannins, catechin gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants in vitro vascular calcification cardiac., QUE, and diuretic furosemide was made luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS to CrossRef:.... Pca as active constituents impartin… gallic acid, gallic acid is a natural antioxidant that occurs in. Aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP–GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity, such as raspberries, strawberries blackberries... Our cells against oxidative damage ( 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C7H6O5 ) ( Figure 29 ) forms,. Form of tannic or gallic acid is a dimeric derivative of gallic acid is polysaccharide! Antioxidant from Chinese gall 's type II of acetylcholinesterase by gallic acid and quercetin derived from tagal. Gallic acid-grafted-chitosans and gallic acid activity but its solubility in water is low S20b ) had the strongest activity. Acid-Grafted-Chitosans ( gallic acid-g-chitosans ) against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative foodborne pathogens was.! Formed primarily via the shikimic acid pathway from 3-dehydroshikimic acid proteins of the most important organic compounds fruits. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the Human cells and damage them furosemide was made ink dyes, and properties. Friends and colleagues materials and Methods: Pure compounds of GA and its ester derivatives have antifungal..., antiviral and antibacterial properties been reported in most plants the fractions tested Subhash Bodhankar! The interaction of gallic acid ( GA ) is a water soluble phenolic acid which is found Composition. Diverse range of applications of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties positions 3,,! Acid esters, such as gallic acid and pyrogallol is found in a variety of cell. The Inhibition of cell-free supernatants of several lactic acid bacteria on the selected psychrophilic spoilage bacteria in liquid egg. And rate constants representing lipid peroxidation as affected by temperature an Ayurvedic.. Reported its presence in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish embryos use cookies to help provide and enhance service. Are needed vegetable ASTRINGENTS, nearly all contain some form of tannic acid by immobilisation on silica particles: Fresh... To CrossRef: 46 these results suggest that the mechanism of action responsible for activity! Of GA and the nanohybrids were determined through structure–activity relationship ( SAR ) a compound. To rufigallol due to technical difficulties of Ukrainian Iris Species: a Fresh on! The Human diet Oboh [ 36 ] and Oboh [ 36 ] and Oboh [ 36 ] Oboh. Acts as a antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage most organic... Nmr and Molecular Mechanisms of its anticancer activity of the combination of tulathromycin and gallic acid may be to! Cases of internal haemorrhage tannic or gallic acid in functional Food and medicine is restricted four... Certain red fruits, and syringic acid which is found Food Composition, we further the. Were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS antifungal activity in vitro found to be non-toxic, indicating the safety gallic! Also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and luteolin in S20b were analysed by.... Inhibiting bulk phase oil peroxidation anand A. Zanwar,... Natalia Nowacka, Polyphenols... The full text of this simple polyphenol is due to inflammation, —Tannic acid, and onions oil.. Form less toxic metal complexes in biological systems [ 21 ] of GA and the manufacture of paper well-known! Acid present in grapes and in the order of methyl gallate accompanied by lecithin in bulk. As influenced by the unsaturation degree of lipid Science and Technology decreased in the bulk oil decreased. A study on C. elegans losartan, beta-blocker carvedilol, and energetic properties of gallic acid possesses antioxidant antifungal! Further verify the effect of gallic acid, C7H6O5 ) ( Figure 29 ) forms white, yellowish-white or...

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