Most notably, women were strongly disadvantaged in terms of losses in household income and associated increases in the risk of poverty. Divorce effects, and gender differences therein, extend into various spheres, including changes in economic status, health and well-being, domestic arrangements, and social relationships. In this study, I examined gender differences in the consequences of divorce by tracing annual change in 20... Introduction. It also mirrors the finding that women are more likely to initiate divorce than men (Kalmijn and Poortman 2006). Depression in a child can be mistaken as a kid with attitude. Given this focus, I selected a sample of women and men who were initially observed in a marital union who either separated over the observation period (divorce sample) or stayed together (control sample). The Balance of the Sexes in Divorce: Gender Differences and Parity. Figure 1 shows gender differences in the consequences of divorce for four economic outcomes. Dykstra, P. A., & Fokkema, T. (2007). In the domestic sphere, the measure of satisfaction with family life was consistent with the finding that the noncustodial parent suffers more than the custodial parent after a divorce (Bauserman 2012). Second, a medium-term view on multiple outcomes showed more similarity than differences between women and men. The economic costs of marital dissolution: Why do women bear a disproportionate cost? Within the domestic sphere, studies have highlighted two areas in which gender differences in the consequences of divorce may emerge. Regularly, I am asked the question of whether our firm, Sodoma Law, represents more men or more women in divorce, support and custody cases. Second, the results found for medium-term adaptation eliminating initial gender differences might at least partly reflect selective attrition. Mulder, C. H., & Wagner, M. (2012). The latter omission is important given that research has indicated that men are more likely to exhibit externalizing behavior in reaction to stress (Horwitz and Davies 1994). Social Science Research, 36, 447–468. If these divorces are especially painful and their consequences are more strongly gendered, my findings might still be tilted toward more peaceful instances of “clean breakups.”. Differential effects of divorce on social integration. 2014). As noted, Germany is an interesting setting to examine gender differences in the consequences of divorce because it has long represented an ideal type of a male breadwinner state. 2011), disproportionate declines in satisfaction with family life (Leopold and Kalmijn 2016), higher dissatisfaction with custodial arrangements (Bauserman 2012; Sheets and Braver 1996), and greater feelings of loneliness and social isolation (Dykstra and Fokkema 2007). West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). European Sociological Review, 21, 59–71. Simon, R. W., & Marcussen, K. (1999). Horwitz, A. V., White, H. R., & Howell-White, S. (1996). Panel a shows that men were slightly more likely to move in the year of divorce and that women were more likely to move in the following years. My sample included 18,030 individuals initially observed in a marital union, 1,220 of whom divorced across the observation period (1984–2015). To gain more insight into these issues, it is useful to complement objective measures of hours spent on routine housework by subjective measures, such as satisfaction with performing these tasks. 1992). Moving related to separation: Who moves and to what distance. Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce 771 Housing and Domestic Outcomes of Divorce Housing and domestic outcomes figure prominently among the stressors associated with the divorce process. Social Forces, 73, 665–692. To assess changes across the divorce process, I modeled all outcomes as linear functions of time before and after divorce. This large window of closely spaced observations allowed me to study gender differences across the divorce process. The analysis was based on fixed-effects models for within-person change occurring up to 5 years before and after divorce. For the German setting of the present study, high levels of gender specialization and low levels of women’s labor force participation may contribute to these differences. Although the process of repartnering was faster in men, average gender differences in the chances of repartnering remained small. The first and most intensely studied is theme parental strain associated with custodial arrangements. Women and Divorce/Men and Divorce presents the most recent research available in the area of gender issues as related to divorce and personal adjustment to divorce. The effects of transitions in marital status on men’s performance of housework. According to the liberation hypothesis (Kalmijn and Broese van Groenou 2005), divorce promotes social integration in these areas because it terminates the dyadic withdrawal of couples. The causes and consequences of divorce are gendered in various ways because the family itself is historically a gendered institution. Diedrick, P. (1991). 2000; Veenhoven 1996). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2013). Although the evidence is not consistent about all these effects, it suggests that an assessment of gender differences in the consequences of divorce should look at multiple outcomes. As we see in the chart, for many countries divorce rates increased markedly between the 1970s and 1990s. SOEP 2012—Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2012. To the extent that routine housework can be considered an onerous activity, these findings suggest that women experience a moderate relief in this domain, whereas men’s domestic well-being is more strongly, and more negatively, affected. If this pathway was canceled out, the analysis would give an incomplete picture of divorce effects on subjective well-being, net of health declines. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 14, 33–46. 3. HYPOTHESIS 2. Alternative routes in the remarriage market: Competing-risk analyses of union formation after divorce. In addition, I estimated fully interacted models to examine whether divorce-related changes in the outcomes differed significantly between men and women. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Thela. Preventive Medicine, 20, 306–315. 2013). Because only characteristics that vary over time can enter the fixed-effects model, all time-constant variables drop out of the equation. Divorce usually entails the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state. PsychCentral does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. 2005). Many children's suffering is compounded as they are punished for their suffering. 1991; Horwitz and White 1991), but it may also entail beneficial health effects in terms of weight loss. The study showed no major gender differences in the consequences of divorce, although effects on women appeared to be more strongly mediated by changes in resources. The benefits of keeping a control sample were twofold. Since the “unit” of marriage often involves friendships with other couples, expressing dissatisfaction with their previous married life may feel uncomfortable. Leopold, T. Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce: A Study of Multiple Outcomes. Comparison of gender differences --Self-other orientation and sex-role orientation of men and women who remarry / Rebecca M. Smith ...[et. European Sociological Review, 21, 259–271. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 455–476. If spouses who own their home separate, retaining the home may require providing for a mortgage and buying the interest of the ex-partner—a task that is often unaffordable for women. divorce bargaining under conditions of power disparities, gender bias, and indeterminate laws yields negative outcomes for women); see also Lenore J. Weitzman, Gender Differences in Custody Bargaining in the United States, in Understanding Gender Differences 3 Understanding Gender Differences in Children’s Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors There is ample evidence that divorce can have adverse effects on children’s well being (O’Connor, Hetherington, … Given the lack of comparative studies on larger sets of outcomes, broader conclusions about cross-national variation in the gendered consequences of divorce require further multiple-outcome studies using data from other national contexts. Journal of European Social Policy, 3, 159–173. (1999). 2012). The latter might apply particularly to men who endorse traditional gender role attitudes. Second, the SOEP is well suited for a multiple-outcome study of gender differences in the consequences of divorce because it contains detailed longitudinal data about economic, housing and domestic, health and well-being, and social outcomes. Dewilde, C., & Stier, H. (2014). The sole ground for getting a divorce in Germany is disruption of a conjugal relationship beyond the point of restoration. Still, because Israeli society is ori- ented toward democracy and egalitarianism (in conflict with religious Since the unit of marriage often involves friendships with other couples, expressing dissatisfaction with their previous married life … Similarly, the effect of divorce on the risk of poverty might partly run through job loss related to the divorce crisis and associated residential moves. In the control sample, no adjustment was made. In these domains, several studies have reported that men were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of divorce, including larger health declines and lower subjective well-being after separation (Shor et al. The, N. S., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2009). Gender Differences in Satisfaction with Divorce Settlements Virgil L. Sheets; Sanford L. Braver Family Relations, Vol. Although it was important to control for these experiences before divorce, canceling out their effects after divorce would be undesirable because both factors could mediate divorce effects on several of the outcomes under consideration (see Amato 2000:1272). A recent comparative study indicated that in Germany, short-term effects are larger than medium-term effects: women’s incomes recovered in the years after divorce (de Vaus et al. New York, NY: Russel Sage Foundation. In line with these considerations, studies of European countries have shown that women are more likely than men to lose homeownership after divorce (Feijten 2005; Herbers et al. Repartnering after the first union disruption. This applied particularly to men who experienced average drops of 2.5 scale points between the reference period and the year of divorce. Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps. Doing gender. Another line of research on how divorce affects health and well-being has focused on mediating factors, such as changes in drinking, smoking, and body weight. Although women recovered in subsequent years, their poverty risk remained above 25 % even several years after divorce. The resulting gender convergence in housework time was permanent, although a large gap remained in postdivorce years. Gender Differences in Argument During Divorce Mediation 27 Mikulincer, and Weller, 1993; Peres and Katz, 1990). Gender differences in domestic well-being . Social Science & Medicine, 75, 46–59. Financial well-being of older divorced/separated men and women: Findings from a panel study. Jeffery, R. W., & Rick, A. M. (2002). Bollen a Alain-Laurent Verbeke b Martin C. Euwema a Show more Research by social psychologists suggests hypotheses about gender differences in the impact of parental divorce on the decisions to work and to … The Journal of Men’s Health states divorce can have a greater toll on men than women. Some gender differences can be traced to how boys and girls are often socialized differently, while others are due to the realities that many divorcing families face. Divorce Relationships Sexuality Teens LGBTQ Friendship By. Men are prone to deeper depressions and more likely to abuse substances after divorce. De Graaf, P. M., & Kalmijn, M. (2003). I analyzed data from 32 waves (1984 until 2015) of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), one of the world’s largest and longest-running household panel studies. Not intended to be comprehensive of the broad field of gender differences in divorce, this important book is representative of current trends and issues in this newly emerging area of research. At the same time, women are more likely to initiate divorce after they accept that their efforts are hopeless (Brinig and Allen 2000; Kalmijn and Poortman 2006). 2017). Obesity, 17, 1441–1447. Because of psychological stress and often poverty, physical health is the outcome of these results. The same pattern was observed for women’s larger declines in satisfaction with household income, suggesting that gender differences in the consequences of divorce are generally larger in the short term than in the medium term. In other words, men’s disproportionate psychological strain was transient, whereas women’s disproportionate economic strain was chronic. Assessing for subtypes of Major Depressive Disorder takes a trained eye, but the payoff can be great. (1991). Debates about gender differences in the consequences of divorce as well as policies aimed at alleviating these differences often center on women’s vulnerability (Amato 2000; Diedrick 1991). ), Wohnen und gender. Social Science Quarterly, 75, 607–621. Homeownership in later life—Does divorce matter? Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce: A Study of Multiple Outcomes Abstract. Satisfaction with family life showed the strongest reactions to the divorce process among all satisfaction measures examined in this study (panel c, Fig. (2013). Women’s lower chances of repartnering (Wu and Schimmele 2005) and responsibilities as a single parent may further impede their path to economic recovery. Both wife and husband are greatly impacted by divorce. An alternative interpretation is that women anticipate and accept the economic consequences of a divorce. This study presents a fuller picture, drawing on multiple measures of economic outcomes, housing and domestic outcomes, health and well-being outcomes, and social outcomes. Men experienced larger drops in satisfaction with life and particularly in satisfaction with family life observed in the year of divorce, but over the next years, the gender gap in these outcomes vanished. Upon their first observation in the panel, respondents who went on to divorce were younger, less educated, more often living with children, more often unemployed, and in slightly worse health than the control sample of those who stayed married. Who suffers more from divorce: men … Kühhirt, M. (2012). Although these four domains are interrelated and partly overlapping, this classification is useful as an organizing scheme for relevant outcomes and related findings. First, observations from the control sample enabled me to better account for time-changing heterogeneity (e.g., age and period effects on the outcome measures) given that a much larger set of panel observations was available to estimate these effects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 339–349. Becoming married, depression, and alcohol problems among young adults. In view of this inconsistency, review articles have concluded that no compelling evidence exists to substantiate the claim that following a divorce, women are generally better off in terms of health and subjective well-being (Amato 2000; Amato and James 2010). This allowed me to assess whether, even before separation, respondents who separated (divorce sample) differed from those who stayed married (control sample). Furthermore, future divorcees showed lower mental health and similar physical health and body mass index (BMI) compared with those who would stay married. However, the German welfare state provides for those with financial need, potentially facilitating women’s economic recovery and alleviating the negative association between divorce and homeownership (Dewilde and Stier 2014). Although the statistics may range in severity from men to women, most symptoms are frequently the same. Goldberg, W. A., Greenberger, E., Hamill, S., & O’Neil, R. (1992). Although many people who have divorced twice continue to marry again, the success rates are not in their favor. Childbirth and the long-term division of labour within couples: How do substitution, bargaining power, and norms affect parents’ time allocation in West Germany? Overall, empirical knowledge about the effects of divorce on social integration is still limited and absent for the German context of the present study. In‐depth, qualitative interviews with 40 women and 39 men who have experienced a gray divorce were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. A. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 907–917. Table 1 presents descriptive information about the divorce sample and the control sample. 3 (health and well-being outcomes), and Fig. Study 2 1999; Peterson 1996) as well as sharp increases in the risk of poverty (Smock and Manning 1999). Advances in Life Course Research, 20, 28–42. Two studies (n = 497) examine gender differences in “unrealistic optimism” in beliefs of marriage using a Taiwanese population.Unrealistic optimism is defined as the beliefs that positive (negative) events are more (less) likely to happen to one’s self versus others. Complex bereavement has similarities to Major Depression, but is quite different at it's core, putting a different spin on treatment. 1, panel d). More than 40 % of men reported frequent or very frequent feelings of loneliness in this year, approximately double the share of women who felt lonely. I complemented the divorce sample by a control sample of individuals who did not divorce across their observation window. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1269–1287. Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior. The same applied to single parenthood. 2010). Given the aims of the present study, endogenous selection into divorce could bias conclusions about gender differences, particularly if it operated differently among men and women. 4). Where one lives, what school their children may attend, and who they confide in are all subject to change. In these domains, several studies have reported that men were Because of the large number of statistical tests performed in my models, I used strict criteria (p < .01 and p < .001) to evaluate statistical significance. Although these results alleviate some of the concerns associated with selective attrition, respondents who dropped out shortly before or after a divorce are underrepresented in my sample. Finally, the findings on changes in housework were in line with the idea that the division of labor becomes less gendered after marital dissolution (Gupta 1999; Hewitt et al. Feijten, P., & Mulder, C. H. (2010). Although both genders can experience a midlife crisis there are differences in the way the symptoms manifest themselves. Evidence for other countries, such as the UK and Sweden, also did not point to major gender differences in the risk of moving out after separation (Feijten and Mulder 2010; Mulder and Malmberg 2011). Housing Studies, 27, 839–852. For example, the effect of divorce on subjective well-being might partly run through declines in health satisfaction. Noncustodial parents—usually fathers—face the challenge of maintaining contact with their children (Vogt Yuan 2014). The year of divorce was defined as the year of separation, although change of the legal status from married to divorced is often delayed by an obligatory year of separation before divorce. Skopek, J., Schmitz, A., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (2011). These findings on the absence of clear-cut gender differences are consistent with previous research on similar measures, including studies on subjective economic well-being (Andress and Bröckel 2007), health and psychological well-being (Strohschein et al. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 51–78. (1997). The suicide risk for an unmarried man is 39 percent higher than that of a married man. “Doing” gender in context: Household bargaining and risk of divorce in Germany and the United States. The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. Because of psychological stress and often poverty, physical health is the outcome of these results. University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018, WV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, You can also search for this author in Gender Differences in the Association between Parental Divorce during Childhood and Stroke in Adulthood: Findings from a Population-Based Survey Esme Fuller-Thomson and Angela D. Dalton International Journal of Stroke 2012 10 : 6 , 868-875 3). A second explanation highlights behavioral differences in the predivorce period. To break collinearity between the divorce indicators and the controls, I included age and period in categorical form, each capturing change across 4-year intervals. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 43, 2589–2607. Schwarze, J., Andersen, H. H., & Anger, S. (2000). It has been shown before that social contacts between fathers and children are affected more negatively by a divorce than social contacts between mothers and children (Lye 1996), but few studies have examined these differences for intergenerational support. Social Forces, 73, 243–262. For this year, linear probability models estimated a sixfold increase from a predivorce risk of approximately 7 % to almost 45 %. Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R., & Reczek, C. (2010). To address this limitation, with the present study, I aimed to offer a comprehensive view of gender differences in the consequences of divorce by tracing annual change in multiple measures covering four outcome domains: economic, housing and domestic, health and well-being, and social. If those who were most distressed in postdivorce years dropped out at higher rates, a pattern of medium-term convergence may reflect an increasingly selective subset of divorcees who continued participating in the survey. The data shown in Tables 2 and 3 pertain to every respondent’s first observation in the panel. A 2 x 2 (event x gender) ANOVA showed that people expect that they are more likely to have a happy marriage than a divorce (Main effect of event: F (1, 305)=78.20, p<.001), irrespective of gender (Effects involving gender are not significant at p<.05). Bachman, J., O’Malley, P., Schulenberg, J., Johnson, K., Bryant, A., & Merline, A. The Journal of Men’s Health states divorce can have a greater toll on men than women. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories: Why Do People Believe Them? A multiwave panel study indicated that these changes may be permanent (Hewitt et al. Men are also at greater risk for physical health problems such as heart attacks and stroke. Since women are more likely to initiate divorce, men may experience denial during the initial stages of separation. Women who initiate divorce might already feel the relief of having terminated an unhappy relationship. Veenhoven, R. (1996). Three main findings emerged from the analysis. Demographic Research, 36(article 12), 371–390. After divorce, women experience disproportionate declines in household income (de Vaus et al. This contrasts with the liberal tradition of U.S. policy that encourages women to invest in their human capital and to participate in the workforce. As a result, all time-constant heterogeneity (observed and unobserved) is rendered inconsequential. This distinction is important for theories of the divorce process, given that the crisis model and the chronic strain model highlight subjective factors, such as the actual distress that individuals experience. These results suggest that research should consider both objective and subjective measures to understand gender differences in postdivorce economic well-being. Third, to ensure a precise temporal identification of transitions to divorce, I removed respondents who were (1) divorced upon entering the panel (N = 2,557 individuals), (2) not observed in the year before they divorced (N = 151 individuals), or (3) entered divorce from a marital status other than married and living together (N = 250 individuals). This context of a conservative male breadwinner model appears conducive to gender inequality in the effects of divorce, particularly regarding economic consequences for women. Both women and men fully recovered in subsequent years, leaving no gender differences. Gender differences will be found in the content of argument men and women use during divorce mediation; men’s arguments tend to be more legalistic than women’s, and women’s arguments tend to be more relational than men‘s. Amato, P. R., & James, S. (2010). Men’s advantage in repartnering has also been found in other European countries (Ivanova et al. 336-342. The gendered dynamics of age preferences—Empirical evidence from online dating. The gender gap in household labor after retirement. Theoretische, politische, soziale und räumliche Aspekte [Housing and gender. Kalmijn, M., & Uunk, W. (2006). Couples with children have a slightly lower rate of breaking up, but divorce impacts more than just the children. In subsequent years, the gap narrowed and vanished in the period of 3 to 5 years after divorce. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 221–237. An analysis of Dutch data supported the isolation hypothesis in most interaction domains, although contact with friends increased for women and particularly for men (Kalmijn and Broese van Groenou 2005). Vogt Yuan, A. S. (2014). Horwitz, A. V., & Davies, L. (1994). Entry into romantic partnership is associated with obesity. It was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to demon- strate that males report less stress prior to the decision to divorce than do females, and that females fare better after separation and divorce than do males. Unemployment and subjective well-being in Germany. (2007). Life course transitions and housework: Marriage, parenthood, and time on housework. Research is conflicting on race and gender differences in the effects of divorce, and there is sparse research that has examined marital quality as a moderator for the consequences of divorce among Black Americans. 203). Moreover, the German model of public childcare is limited and designed to assist mothers in working part-time rather than providing full-time coverage from birth. Diener, E., Inglehart, R., & Tay, L. (2013). Regularly, I am asked the question of whether our firm, Sodoma Law, represents more men or more women in divorce, support and custody cases. Moving after separation: The role of location-specific capital. Evidence from long-term panel data on multiple domains of well-being. Mulder, C. H., & Malmberg, G. (2011). In terms of consequences for social ties within the household, panels a and b illustrate gender differences in repartnering and the related risk of single parenting. To estimate change in the outcome measures, I used fixed-effects linear regression models. Leopold, L., Leopold, T., & Lechner, C. (2017). Income and life satisfaction after marital disruption in Germany. In the United States, the UK, Australia, and other liberal societies with less institutional support for the male breadwinner model, gender differences in the economic consequences of divorce may be smaller. Roles, and gender differences in divorce problems differential outcomes to stress difference in repartnering has been... Analysis indicates that women are more likely to drop out of home ownership in life! J. E. ( 2008 ) % confidence intervals are shown in Figs health and well-being outcomes are in! 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